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Diseases Caused by Microorganisms

Posted on : June 6th 2019, 1:51 am

Diseases Caused By Bacteria

Disease

Causative agent

Mode of transmission

Type of organism affected

Details

Acne vulgaris

(or simply acne or pimples)

Propionibacterium acnes

Direct contact/close contact

Humans

Skin disease that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with dead skin cells and oil from the skin.

Causes == Genetics + Excessive growth of the bacteria Propionibacterium acnes.

Anthrax

Bacillus anthraces

Contact with infected meat

Most animals including humans

Causes skin infections and Gastrointestinal (GI) infection that are fatal.

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

Water/food

Humans

Effects small intestine. Symptom is large amounts of watery diarrhea that lasts a few days. Vomiting and muscle cramps may also occur. Diarrhea can be so severe that it leads within hours to severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.

Citrus Canker

Xanthomonas axonopodis

Air

Citrus fruit plants

Infection causes lesions on the leaves, stems, and fruit of citrus trees.

Diptheria

Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Air/direct contact

Humans

Symptoms: sore throat and fever. The neck may swell in part due to large lymph nodes. Complications may include myocarditis, inflammation of nerves, kidney problems, and bleeding problems due to low blood platelets

Pneumonia

[caused by bacteria or viruses]

Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae

Air borne droplets of sneeze

Humans

Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the microscopic air sacs known as alveoli.

Peptic ulcers

Helicobacter pylori

 

Humans

Ulcers in the lining of stomach and starting part of small intestine

Plague

Yersinia pestis

Air/ direct contact

Humans

Unhygienic conditions is the main cause. [You know why Surat is one of the cleanest cities in India?]

The symptoms of plague depend on the concentrated areas of infection in each person: bubonic plague in lymph nodes, septicemic plague in blood vessels, pneumonic plague in lungs.

Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Air

Humans

Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. Most infections do not have symptoms, known as latent tuberculosis. The classic symptoms of active TB are a chronic cough with blood-tinged sputum, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

Typhoid

Salmonella typhi

Water

Humans

Often there is a gradual onset of a high fever over several days. Weakness, abdominal pain, constipation, and headaches also commonly occur.

Diseases Caused By Viruses

AIDS

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

Blood exchange

Humans and primates

Severely weakens immunity and makes way for a number of other pathogens.

Chicken Pox

varicella zoster virus (VZV)

Air/contact

Humans

Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease. The disease results in a characteristic skin rash that forms small, itchy blisters. Less severe than small pox. Almost eradicated after the invention of vaccination.

 

Small Pox

Variola major and Variola minor

Air/contact/water

Humans

One of the highly dreaded diseases that is highly contagious.

Almost eradicated after the invention of vaccination.

Chikungunya

Chikungunya virus

Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus

 

Causes severe joint pains. Animal reservoirs of the virus include monkeys, birds, cattle, and rodents. This is in contrast to dengue, for which primates are the only hosts

Cold, influenza (flu) and most coughs

Rhino viruses

Air borne droplets of sneeze

Humans

Summer are hostile for the virus. Most common during winter months.

Dengue fever

Flavivirus

Female Aedes mosquito

Humans

high fever, headache, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and a characteristic skin rash.

In a small proportion of cases, the disease develops into the life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in bleeding, low levels of blood platelets and blood plasma leakage, or into dengue shock syndrome, where dangerously low blood pressure occurs.

Ebola

Ebola virus

Animal to man

Humans and Some Animals

Ebola infection shows a sudden onset of the disease resulting initially in flu-like symptoms: fever, chills and malaise.

As the disease progresses, it results in multi-system involvements indicated by the person experiencing lethargy, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and headache.

Foot and Mouth Disease

Picornavirus[genus Aphthovirus]

Close-contact animal-to-animal spread

Animals

Serious problem to animal farming in India.

Hepatitis B

hepatitis B virus (HBV)

Blood Exchange, STD [Sexually transmitted disease]

Humans

Affects the liver. Acute as well as chronic.

Measles

measles virus

Air

Humans

Complications may include diarrhea, blindness, inflammation of the brain, and pneumonia among others.

Polio or Poliomyelitis

Poliovirus

Water/faecal-mouth

Humans

Weak muscles leading to deformations.

Zika

Zika virus

Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti and A. albopictus

Humans

 

Diseases Caused By Protozoans

Amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery)

Entamoeba histolytica

Contaminated Water/food

Humans

Symptoms may include abdominal pain, mild diarrhoea, bloody diarrhea or severe colitis with tissue death and perforation. This last complication may cause peritonitis. People affected may develop anemia due to loss of blood.

Dysentery

Leishmania

     

Kala-Azar or Visceral leishmaniasis

Leishmania genus

Sandflies

Humans

This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria).Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen.

Malaria

Different species of Plasmodium (P. vivax, P. malaria and P. falciparum)

Female Anopheles mosquito

Humans

 Symptoms include fever, fatigue, vomiting, and headaches. In severe cases it can cause yellow skin, seizures, coma, or death.

Sleeping Sickness

Trypanosoma

Infected tsetse fly

Humans

Initially, in the first stage of the disease, there are fevers, headaches, itchiness, and joint pains. This begins one to three weeks after the bite. Weeks to months later the second stage begins with confusion, poor coordination, numbness and trouble sleeping.

Yellow Vein Mosaic of Okra [Ladies finger]

Bhendi yellow vein mosaic virus

Insect

Okra plant

Okra are dwarfed, malformed.

Diseases Caused By Fungi

Ringworms

Fungi belonging to the genera

Micr Trichophyton and Epidermophyton

Skin-skin contact

Humans

The fungi that cause parasitic infection, collectively dermatophytes, feed on keratin, the material found in the outer layer of skin, hair, and nails.

Rust of wheat

Puccinia rust fungus

Air/seeds

Wheat and other crops

Wheat leaf rust is a fungal disease that affects wheat, barley and rye stems, leaves and grains. In temperate zones it is destructive on winter wheat because the pathogen. overwinters. Infections can lead up to 20% yield loss exacerbated by dying leaves which fertilize the fungus.

 

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