Landforms are basically natural features or shapes which are spread out across our planet earth. Oceans and continents are the largest grouping of landforms that exist on this planet. These landform can be further divided into different landforms based on the physical features and shapes such as glaciers, mountains, hills, valleys, plateaus, deserts, plains, lakes, rivers, and coastal plains. Indian landforms are spread out from Great Himalayas from north to Costal plains in the south. India's landforms can be classified mainly in five different types of landforms:-
- The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
- The Northern Rivers
- The Peninsular Plateau
- The Indian Desert
- The Coastal Plains
- The Islands
The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
- Northern boundary:- The Great Himalayan Mountains serve as the northern boundary of India.
- Five different regions:- Indian Himalayas can be divided into five different regions. First is the region of Jammu and Kashmir which has foothill plains and various lakes in this region along with a lot of mountain peaks.
- Himachal Pradesh region:- This region is generally snow-capped and it has a lot coniferous forest.
- Uttaranchal region:- The Uttaranchal region attracts many adventure sports enthusiasts.
- Sikkim :- There are lots of huge peaks in this region.
- North Eastern states:- This region includes the "seven sisters" of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Tripura, Meghalaya and Mizoram.
The Northern Rivers
The Ganges is the most sacred river. The Ganges starts from Gangotri Glacier (Uttarakhand). The standard of the stream starts at the juncture of Bhagirathi and Alaknanda waterways at Devprayag (Uttarakhand). The river moves through the conditions of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and afterwards, enters Bangladesh. Real urban communities situated at the banks of the Ganges are – Rishikesh, Haridwar, Kanpur, Allahabad, Varanasi, Patna, Bhagalpur, Farakka Barrage (Malda). The total length that the Ganges covers during its voyage is 2,525 kilometers (1569 miles) before it releases in the Bay of Bengal.
The Peninsular Plateau
- It is built of stable rocks and the plateaus is the most wide physiographic partition of India.
- Total Area:- The Peninsular Plateau has an area of about above 15 Lakh sq. km. This landform has got diverse landscape of mountains, plateaus and valleys.
- Average height:- The plateaus of this physiographic division have an average height of above 400m from mean sea level. Anamudi with a height of 2,695 m is the highest peak among these.
- Nine subdivisions:- The peninsular plateau has been divided into nine subdivisions. These are the Aravalli hills, Malwa Plateau, Vindhya ranges, Satpura ranges, Chotta Nagpur plateau, Deccan pláteau, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Kachchh and Kathiawar of Gujarat. Many small and large hills and pláteaus are also integrated in these zones.
The Indian Desert
- Thar Desert :- Thar Desert is in the western parts of India. It is the seventh-largest desert in the world. It covers approx 92,200 square miles of area.
- Temperature:- Thar desert has very extreme and severe temperatures around the year. It is one of the most inhospitable parts of the country. Winters in the thar desert are below freezing temperature, and summer are too hot to live in approx temperature is around 120 F degrees.
- Annual rainfall:- There is rainfall for few months of summer.
- Indian States:- It covers the Indian states of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Punjab and extends into Pakistan to the west.
- Fauna and flora:- Given the extreme climate, the Thar has plentiful fauna and flora, with around 141 known species of native birds.
The Coastal Plains
The coastal strip surroundings the Deccan plateau alongwith both eastern and western side. The Eastern Coastal Plain insert between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The Western Coastal Plain lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.
- Northern Circars & Coromandal Coast:- The northern part (the Northern Circars) and the southern part is (the Coromandal Coast) important part of this, because these contains fertile and well-watered deltas created by the Krishna, Kaveri, Mahananda and Godavari river.
- Konkan Coast:- The Konkan Coast (northern division of the Western Coastal Plains) is extensive and thin as it moves southwards.
- Malabar Coast :- The Malabar Coast (southern division of the Western Coastal Plains) is thin and consists of a number of lagoons, backwaters and raised beaches.
Few of the important topics related to Geography which would be very helpful for various Government exams are as below:-