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Stone Age in India

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Stone Age in India

 Here we are providing information related to Stone Age in India which will be very helpful in the preparation of UPSC, State PSCs, SSC all other types of Government exams. We are proving here key feature of the different ages, weapons used, sites where these civilizations flourished and other important information for students who are also pursuing their school, graduate and post graduate courses. Stone age can be further divided into three different ages which are as below:-

 Stone Age

  1.        The Palaeolithic Age     
  2.        The Mesolithic Age
  3.        The Neolithic Age 

The Paleolithic Age

The Paleolithic Age is also known as Old Stone Age in India which flourished between 500,000 B.C. to 10,000 B.C. It is the starting of the stone age where man was basically dependent on hunting as cultivation and house building was not known to the man in those days. This can also be further divided into three ages:-

  1. Lower Paleolithic (500,000 BC to 50,000 BC)
  2. Middle Paleolithic (50,000 BC to 40,000 BC)
  3. Upper Paleolithic (40,000 BC to 10,000 BC).

Paleolithic Age Key Features:-

  • Weapon used:- In this age, mainly hand-axes, choppers, cleavers, stone tools made by cutting stone were used for hunting as well as their protection. Limestone was also used to make tools
  • Society life :- There was no society life as cultivation and house building was not known to the man in these days. They basically lived in hills, caves, rivers, rocks, etc.

Indian sites of Old Stone Age (Palaeolithic Age)

Lower Palaeolithic

  • Valley of Sohan in Punjab (now in Pakistan)
  • Kashmir and Thar Desert
  • Belan Valley in Mirzapur district, UP
  • Bidwana in Rajasthan
  • Narmada Valley

Middle Palaeolithic

  • Narmada River Valley
  • Tungabhadra River Valley

Upper Palaeolithic

  • Andra Pradesh
  • Karnataka
  • Central MP
  • Maharashtra
  • Southern UP
  • South Bihar Plateau


The Mesolithic Age

The Mesolithic Age is also known as Middle Stone Age which flourished between 9,000 B.C. to 4,000 B.C. Here also man was dependent on hunting, however, domestication of animals started in this age. A lot of climate changes happened in this age. This age was a transition between the Paleolithic Age and the Neolithic Age.

Mesolithic Age key features:-

  1. Weapons used: Weapons like blades, pointers, scrapers and borers were used in this age which were smaller, thinner and lighter as comapared to Paleolithic Age. Here in this age small stone tools which used to be stuck into stones and were used as saws and sickles.
  2. Climate changes:- A lot of climate changes happened in this age. Climate became warmer and humid. The quantity of rainfall drastically increase in this age. Therefore, flora and fauna was abundant in this age.
  3. Domestication of animals:- Here in this age domestication of animals was also happened and that too for the first time. As per the records,first animal to be domesticated was the ancestor of the dog. Few other animal which were also domesticated in this age were Sheep and goats,
  4. Hunting:- Hunting continued in this age also. It was mainly used for food gathering as cultivation was not stated in this age.
  5. Society life: There are not much of the records of society development in this age, however, first human colonization of the Ganga plains was discoved in this age.

List of Indian Mesolithic sites, their locations, and characteristics 

Name of Mesolithic Sites

Location

Characteristics

Bagor

Rajasthan

It had a microlithic industry and its people lived on hunting and pastoralism.

Adamgarh

Madhya Pradesh

It shows the earliest evidence for the domestication of animals.

Bhimbetka

Madhya Pradesh

It has more than 500 painted rock shelters.

Langhnaj

Gujarat

Provides the earliest evidence of burial of the dead.

Mohrana Pahara

Mirzapur, Uttar Pradesh

Provides the earliest evidence of burial.


The Neolithic Age

The Neolithic Age was also known as New Stone Age which flourished between 7,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C. Here in this Age, cultivation of crops started and weapons used were also polished as well as in refined form. Here human turned into food producer from food gatherer. Pottery was also used in this age.

Neolithic Age Key features

The Neolithic Age saw the man turning into food producer from food gatherer. It also witnessed the use of pottery for the first time. People used microlithic blades in addition to tools made of polished stone. The use of metal was unknown.

  1. Tools & Weapons: The people primarily used axes as weapons. Apart from this people used microlithic blades in addition to tools made of polished stones. It is also know that tools made from bones.
  2. Agriculture: Here in this age human turned himself from food gathere to food producers. As per the records available ragi, horse gram, cotton, rice, wheat, and barley were cultivated in this age.
  3. Domestication of animals:-In this age domestication of cattle, sheep, and goats was done.
  4. Society & Housing: Here people lived in rectangular or circular houses which were made of mud and reed. In some of the sites discovered bricks were also used.
  5. Pottery was started: As cultivation as started for the first time in this age, therefore, there was requirement to store foodgrains, and other stuff. That’s why pottery first appeared in the Neolithic Age.
  6. Community Life: In this age people started living in society and communities in a very settled life.

List of Neolithic sites, their locations and Time Span

Name of Neolithic Site

Time Span

Location

Mehrgarh

7,000 B.C.

Baluchistan, Pakistan

Burzahom (the place of birch)

2,700 B.C.

Kashmir

Gufkral

2,000 B.C.

Kashmir

Chirand

2,000 B.C.

Bihar

Pikilihal, Brahmagiri, Maski, Hallur, Takkalakota, T. Narsipur, Kodekal, Sanganakallu

2,000 B.C. to 1,000 B.C.

Karnataka

Paiyampalli

2,000-1,000 B.C.

Tamil Nadu

Utnur

2,000-1,000 B.C.

Andhra Pradesh


Here you can also go through details of other periods of Ancient Indian History which would be very helpful for various Government Exams:-

  1. Indus Valley Civilization
  2. Vedic Period: Ancient History
  3. Vedic Literature : Ancient History
  4. Janapadas and Mahajanapadas
  5. Mauryan Empire : Ancient History
  6. Gupta Dynasty : Ancient History
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